military connector


Sealing Electrical Connectors with ceramic to metal seals

When engineers design a seal for feedthroughs and other electrical connectors electrical connectors, four general classes of material are evaluated. At the low end, a simple epoxy or glue may suffice. Alternatively, a mechanical seal with an elastomer o-ring can provide a somewhat more robust solution. For more demanding applications, glass seals connectors are effective in preventing leakage during severe changes in temperature, pressure and humidity.

The highest performance electrical seal systems employ ceramics for exceptional resistance to thermal and mechanical shock, as well as corrosion. However, the superior performance of ceramic versus glass comes at a cost. The ceramic material is typically more expensive than glass and ceramic-to-metal seals require more sophisticated engineering and more complex manufacturing processes.

Therefore, the Alberox Products business of Morgan Technical Ceramics (MTC), a world leader in the manufacture of ceramic-to-metal assemblies, recommends the use of ceramic seals in situations where glass seals fail to meet demanding performance requirements of an application. For example: high resistance to thermal and mechanical shock is necessary for many aerospace applications; exceptional corrosion resistance and biocompatibility is required by medical implant devices; and superior dielectric properties are critical to high voltage and high current laser applications.

Advantages of Ceramic
Ceramic-to-metal seals have a number of properties that allow for a more robust, durable hermetic seal and better electrical insulation than glass-to-metal seals. Alberox Products constructs seals primarily with 95% alumina (AL-500®), 97.6% alumina (AL-300®), and 99.5% alumina (AL-995®), as well as 100% pure sapphire and ruby. The polycrystalline alumina materials, such as AL-995, are favored in applications requiring a good heat sink. Sapphire and ruby are single-crystal formulations used for some medical implants and other high-purity applicati.

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How to solve and prevent connector EMI problems

EMI problem will influence connector performance, especially for special applications, military connector, aerospace connector, oil & gas application connectors, etc.

When meeting the EMI problems, below are some methods to solve it.

1.       Put the electro conductive plastics around the connector, as it is soft, this can solve the problem between connector outer shell and gasket.

2.       Engineers shall mount the connector according to connector outer shell tolerance.

3.       Achieve impedance bond between connector and outer shell, ensure connection performance.

4.       Force-cooled design is needed, also shall confirm the sealed function between connector insulator and outer shell. Keep gasket clean.

For I/O common-mode noise, some basic method can solve or reduce it.

1.       Set decoupling capacitor near load point

2.       Pulse current loop size shall be minimized.

3.       High power component shall be kept away from I/O port

4.       Ensure signal integrity

5.       Partial filtering


Miniature connector created to allow for more connections

A push-pull connector is designed to offer the smallest circular housing with the highest performance signal and power currently on market in this combination.

The MiniMax from Connectors manufacturer, Alpharetta, GA, provides a 20 signal (0.5A) and four power (5A) connector with 24 mixed contacts in a circular connector housing profile of less than 7mm, or the size of a push pin. Tested to withstand harsh environments, extreme temperatures, and 1,000 hours of salt water spray, the connector also boasts a durability of more than 500 mating cycles.

It is available in either push-pull, breakaway, or screw lock latching systems. The unbreakable keying system withstands over 4 Nm of torque and the over-molded assemblies are designed to withstand 100lb of pull or
breakaway force.

Created to allow for more connections in a smaller space, the connector is designed so that the power and signal don’t interfere with one another. The manufacturer seeks to offer a balance of performance and cost-effectiveness with the product, which because of its 24-contact configuration enables product designers to use fewer connectors. Because fewer cables are needed, the entire device can become more cost-effective and efficient to manufacture, as well as reliable during use. Suitable applications include portable equipment and communications and medical devices.


Connector raw material LCP feature and application

LCP is the most popular material for connector manufacturing, no matter military connector, aerospace connector, industrial connector, or automotive connector, medical connector.


a.       Self-reinforcement performance, fiber structure is extremely regular

b.       Excellent thermostability, heat resistance and chemical resistance

c.       Good weather resistance, radiation resistance and flame retardant

d.       Good insulation property

e.       High corrosion resistance


a.       Electronics and electric device

b.       PCB board, satellite component, engine parts, automotive components, medical device, etc.

c.       Combined with filler or alloy materials


Six Basic Connector Test Procedures

1.       Physical test
Size, material, high temperature resistance, SMT test, constant temperature and humidity, thermal shock and wire

2.       Chemical test
Finishing, dipping tin, salt-spray

3.       Electric performance test
Connection point, dielectric strength, contact resistance, insulation resistance

4.       Mechanical test
Torque force, insertion and extraction force, swing, evenness, abrupt pull test, retention

5.       RoHS
RoHS-XRF test

6.       High frequency NA/TDR
Impedance, voltage standing wave ratio, return loss, insert loss, capacity.

Above tests is only for industrial electronic connectors; for military or aerospace connectors, some will be plated with nickel or cadmium just as D38999 connectors to apply into harsh environment.

What boost automotive connector market demand?

With the development of automotive industry, connector market is growing very fast, too. Automotive connectors grow into the biggest consumer market, as connector is the key component for electric connection, especially for automotive electronic or communication systems.

The requirement of power connector also increased for the application in automotive audio system and GPS system. Airbags has become standard design for cars; there is also an increase flexible PCB connector demand, which can also promote the green lifestyle, as flexible PCB connector can save the cable amount.

Many connector distributors have found the trend of automotive connector development and make some adjustment in market promotion. Many connector manufacturers provide many benefits to support distributors, AMP, Molex, ITT, Sunkye, etc.

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Miniature waterproof circular connectors

Miniature waterproof circular connectors

Electric connector plating common problems

Electric connector is a very important electronic component for connection, plating on the connectors is also necessary for protection and anti-corrosion, which can also improve connector durability and wearability.

Below is plating common problems and solutions.

1.       Plating layer roughness;
Solution is to dilute the plating bath and adjust other composition.

(2)    Temperature is high.
Solution is to lower temperature.

(3)    Cathodic current density is too high.
Solution is to reduce current density.

(4)    Free ammonia is less.
Solution is to add ammonia.

2.       Plating darkens.
(1)    Main salt level is low.
Solution is to add main salt.

(2)    Ammonium chloride is too high.
Solution is to add main salt or raise the temperature.

(3)    Temperature is too low.
Solution is to raise the temperature.

3.       Plating is too fragile and connection performance is not good.
(1)    Cathodic current density is too high.
Solution is to reduce current density.

(2)    Pretreatment is not good.
Solution is to improve pretreatment.

(3)    Cu impurity is too much.
Solution is to recover palladium and use new plating bath.

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Electronic connector design and development

Electronic connector is one of the electronic devices, which is widely applied in electronic equipments, space and aviation equipments, defense system, telecommunication equipment, also applied into computers and peripheral products, etc.

1. Target of connector design and development is to meet the requirement of function, structure and material properties.

(1) Conduction and connection function shall meet the requirement of signal transmission and power; the key properties include contact resistance, impedance, cross talk, contact stress, which can ensure DC and AC current transmission and reduce power loss; lower signal interference between capacitors and indicators;   

(2) Stresses, contact force and contact stress shall be considered when design connector structure to avoid material deformation, etc.

(3) Conductivity, fatigability, attrition resistance, electroplating shall be considered when choosing metal material; heat resistance, hygroscopicity, fluidity shall be considered when choosing plastic material.

2. Connector contact resistance

Connector quality depends on contact resistance; contact resistance can be divided in the two parts; contact material resistance and connection interface resistance.

3. Connector conduction and connection

Conduction performance is proportional to contact area, so contact area surface roughness will affect connection area directly.

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